Network Working GroupR. Khare
Request for Comments: 28174K Associates / UC Irvine
Updates: vip russland partnervermittlungS. Lawrence
Category: Standards TrackAgranat Systems, Inc.
May 2000

funny pictures russian dating sites Upgrading to TLS Within HTTP/1.1

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partnersuche kostenlos finja herkunft This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for improvements. Please refer to the current edition of the “Internet Official Protocol Standards” (STD 1) for the standardization state and status of this protocol. Distribution of this memo is unlimited.partnervermittlung kontakt redaktion

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partnersuche österreich gratis versand This memo explains how to use the Upgrade mechanism in HTTP/1.1 to initiate Transport Layer Security (TLS) over an existing TCP connection. This allows unsecured and secured HTTP traffic to share the same well known port (in this case, http: at 80 rather than https: at 443). It also enables "virtual hosting", so a single HTTP + TLS server can disambiguate traffic intended for several hostnames at a single IP address.seriöse chats ab 50 xl

erfolgreiche partnersuche deutschland Since HTTP/1.1 [1] defines Upgrade as a hop-by-hop mechanism, this memo also documents the HTTP CONNECT method for establishing end-to-end tunnels across HTTP proxies. Finally, this memo establishes new IANA registries for public HTTP status codes, as well as public or private Upgrade product tokens.free dating sim apps

partnersuche kostenlos finja nachrichten This memo does NOT affect the current definition of the 'https' URI scheme, which already defines a separate namespace (http://example.org/ and https://example.org/ are not equivalent).free dating sim apps for guys



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partnersuche kostenlos finja norddeich The historical practice of deploying HTTP over SSL3 [3] has distinguished the combination from HTTP alone by a unique URI scheme and the TCP port number. The scheme 'http' meant the HTTP protocol alone on port 80, while 'https' meant the HTTP protocol over SSL on port 443. Parallel well-known port numbers have similarly been requested -- and in some cases, granted -- to distinguish between secured and unsecured use of other application protocols (e.g. snews, ftps). This approach effectively halves the number of available well known ports.online dating nickname generator

singlebörse gratis testen At the Washington DC IETF meeting in December 1997, the Applications Area Directors and the IESG reaffirmed that the practice of issuing parallel "secure" port numbers should be deprecated. The HTTP/1.1 Upgrade mechanism can apply Transport Layer Security [6] to an open HTTP connection.frau sucht frau für ein abenteuer

singles ab 40 kostenlos runterladen In the nearly two years since, there has been broad acceptance of the concept behind this proposal, but little interest in implementing alternatives to port 443 for generic Web browsing. In fact, nothing in this memo affects the current interpretation of https: URIs. However, new application protocols built atop HTTP, such as the Internet Printing Protocol [7], call for just such a mechanism in order to move ahead in the IETF standards process.partner suchen oder finden lassen youtube

singles ab 40 kostenlos youtube The Upgrade mechanism also solves the "virtual hosting" problem. Rather than allocating multiple IP addresses to a single host, an HTTP/1.1 server will use the Host: header to disambiguate the intended web service. As HTTP/1.1 usage has grown more prevalent, more ISPs are offering name-based virtual hosting, thus delaying IP address space exhaustion.dating profile nickname generator

partnersuche urlaub reise TLS (and SSL) have been hobbled by the same limitation as earlier versions of HTTP: the initial handshake does not specify the intended hostname, relying exclusively on the IP address. Using a cleartext HTTP/1.1 Upgrade: preamble to the TLS handshake -- choosing the certificates based on the initial Host: header -- will allow ISPs to provide secure name-based virtual hosting as well.dating profile name generator


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free anime dating sim apps TLS, a.k.a., SSL (Secure Sockets Layer), establishes a private end-to-end connection, optionally including strong mutual authentication, using a variety of cryptosystems. Initially, a handshake phase uses three subprotocols to set up a record layer, authenticate endpoints, set parameters, as well as report errors. Then, there is an ongoing layered record protocol that handles encryption, compression, and reassembly for the remainder of the connection. The latter is intended to be completely transparent. For example, there is no dependency between TLS's record markers and or certificates and HTTP/1.1's chunked encoding or authentication.funny pictures russian dating website

free dating sim app store Either the client or server can use the HTTP/1.1 [1] Upgrade mechanism (funny pictures from russian dating sites) to indicate that a TLS-secured connection is desired or necessary. This memo defines the "TLS/1.0" Upgrade token, and a new HTTP Status Code, "426 Upgrade Required".royal exclusiv partnervermittlung erfahrungen

free anime dating sim app christliche singles freunde chat community partnersuche osteuropa and clever dating profile usernames describe the operation of a directly connected client and server. Intermediate proxies must establish an end-to-end tunnel before applying those operations, as explained in partnervermittlung in der landwirtschaft.sexualpartner suchen xing

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gratis seriöse partnersuche kostenlos Keywords "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT" and "MAY" that appear in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [11].how to pick a good online dating username


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warum allein bleiben erfolgreiche partnersuche im alter When the client sends an HTTP/1.1 request with an Upgrade header field containing the token "TLS/1.0", it is requesting the server to complete the current HTTP/1.1 request after switching to TLS/1.0.datingcafe für frauen kostenlos

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partnersuche kostenlos finja erfahrung A client MAY offer to switch to secured operation during any clear HTTP request when an unsecured response would be acceptable:learning english free chat

    GET http://example.bank.com/acct_stat.html?749394889300 HTTP/1.1
    Host: example.bank.com
    Upgrade: TLS/1.0
    Connection: Upgrade

partnersuche kostenlos finja erfahrungen In this case, the server MAY respond to the clear HTTP operation normally, OR switch to secured operation (as detailed in the next section).learn english free chat

erfolgreiche partnersuche vergleich Note that HTTP/1.1 [1] specifies "the upgrade keyword MUST be supplied within a Connection header field (section 14.10) whenever Upgrade is present in an HTTP/1.1 message".partnersuche wolfratshausen online

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    OPTIONS * HTTP/1.1
    Host: example.bank.com
    Upgrade: TLS/1.0
    Connection: Upgrade

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partnersuche kostenlos finja bedeutung As specified in HTTP/1.1 [1], if the server is prepared to initiate the TLS handshake, it MUST send the intermediate "101 Switching Protocol" and MUST include an Upgrade response header specifying the tokens of the protocol stack it is switching to:partnersuche akademiker ab 50

    HTTP/1.1 101 Switching Protocols
    Upgrade: TLS/1.0, HTTP/1.1
    Connection: Upgrade

erfolgreiche partnersuche wien Note that the protocol tokens listed in the Upgrade header of a 101 Switching Protocols response specify an ordered 'bottom-up' stack.singlebörse hamburg test

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how to create a dating site username Once the TLS handshake completes successfully, the server MUST continue with the response to the original request. Any TLS handshake failure MUST lead to disconnection, per the TLS error alert specification.partnervermittlung landwirtschaft youtube


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how to make a good username for dating sites The Upgrade response header field advertises possible protocol upgrades a server MAY accept. In conjunction with the "426 Upgrade Required" status code, a server can advertise the exact protocol upgrade(s) that a client MUST accept to complete the request.gratis seriöse partnersuche indien

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how to choose a username for dating site As specified in HTTP/1.1 [1], the server MAY include an Upgrade header in any response other than 101 or 426 to indicate a willingness to switch to any (combination) of the protocols listed.partnerbörse akademiker jobbörse

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partnersuche in tschechien A server MAY indicate that a client request can not be completed without TLS using the "426 Upgrade Required" status code, which MUST include an an Upgrade header field specifying the token of the required TLS version.singlebörsen test dating cafe

    HTTP/1.1 426 Upgrade Required
    Upgrade: TLS/1.0, HTTP/1.1
    Connection: Upgrade

partnervermittlung in japan The server SHOULD include a message body in the 426 response which indicates in human readable form the reason for the error and describes any alternative courses which may be available to the user.singlebörsen test deutschland

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erfolgreiche partnersuche kostenlos As a hop-by-hop header, Upgrade is negotiated between each pair of HTTP counterparties. If a User Agent sends a request with an Upgrade header to a proxy, it is requesting a change to the protocol between itself and the proxy, not an end-to-end change.dating app name generator

singles ab 40 kostenlos anschauen Since TLS, in particular, requires end-to-end connectivity to provide authentication and prevent man-in-the-middle attacks, this memo specifies the CONNECT method to establish a tunnel across proxies.dating site screen name generator

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partnersuche im urlaub If an origin server receives an Upgrade header from a proxy and responds with a 101 Switching Protocols response, it is changing the protocol only on the connection between the proxy and itself. Similarly, a proxy might return a 101 response to its client to change the protocol on that connection independently of the protocols it is using to communicate toward the origin server.partnerbörse akademiker

dating site profile examples These scenarios also complicate diagnosis of a 426 response. Since Upgrade is a hop-by-hop header, a proxy that does not recognize 426 might remove the accompanying Upgrade header and prevent the client from determining the required protocol switch. If a client receives a 426 status without an accompanying Upgrade header, it will need to request an end to end tunnel connection as described in er sucht sie kostenlos and repeat the request in order to obtain the required upgrade information.partnervermittlung vip zappos

dating site profile examples female This hop-by-hop definition of Upgrade was a deliberate choice. It allows for incremental deployment on either side of proxies, and for optimized protocols between cascaded proxies without the knowledge of the parties that are not a part of the change.partnersuche berlin akademiker

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erfolgreiche partnersuche osteuropa A CONNECT method requests that a proxy establish a tunnel connection on its behalf. The Request-URI portion of the Request-Line is always an 'authority' as defined by URI Generic Syntax [2], which is to say the host name and port number destination of the requested connection separated by a colon:good dating profile username

   CONNECT server.example.com:80 HTTP/1.1
   Host: server.example.com:80

partnersuche kostenlos finja vorname Other HTTP mechanisms can be used normally with the CONNECT method -- except end-to-end protocol Upgrade requests, of course, since the tunnel must be established first.how to choose a good dating username

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   CONNECT server.example.com:80 HTTP/1.1
   Host: server.example.com:80
   Proxy-Authorization: basic aGVsbG86d29ybGQ=

free online dating 100 free Like any other pipelined HTTP/1.1 request, data to be tunneled may be sent immediately after the blank line. The usual caveats also apply: data may be discarded if the eventual response is negative, and the connection may be reset with no response if more than one TCP segment is outstanding.fun dating site usernames

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english learning online chat Any successful (2xx) response to a CONNECT request indicates that the proxy has established a connection to the requested host and port, and has switched to tunneling the current connection to that server connection.online free dating sim

english speak online chat It may be the case that the proxy itself can only reach the requested origin server through another proxy. In this case, the first proxy SHOULD make a CONNECT request of that next proxy, requesting a tunnel to the authority. A proxy MUST NOT respond with any 2xx status code unless it has either a direct or tunnel connection established to the authority.best free dating sim

top 10 america dating site An origin server which receives a CONNECT request for itself MAY respond with a 2xx status code to indicate that a connection is established.top free dating sim games

free dating sim app android If at any point either one of the peers gets disconnected, any outstanding data that came from that peer will be passed to the other one, and after that also the other connection will be terminated by the proxy. If there is outstanding data to that peer undelivered, that data will be discarded.top free dating sims


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play free online dating sim Reliable, interoperable negotiation of Upgrade features requires an unambiguous failure signal. The 426 Upgrade Required status code allows a server to definitively state the precise protocol extensions a given resource must be served with.beste partnerbörse für akademiker

free online anime dating sim It might at first appear that the response should have been some form of redirection (a 3xx code), by analogy to an old-style redirection to an https: URI. User agents that do not understand Upgrade: preclude this.good american dating sites

free dating games for android Suppose that a 3xx code had been assigned for "Upgrade Required"; a user agent that did not recognize it would treat it as 300. It would then properly look for a "Location" header in the response and attempt to repeat the request at the URL in that header field. Since it did not know to Upgrade to incorporate the TLS layer, it would at best fail again at the new URL.americas best dating site


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gratis seriöse partnersuche schweiz The HTTP Status Code Registry defines the name space for the Status-Code token in the Status line of an HTTP response. The initial values for this name space are those specified by: english help online chat free

  1. Draft Standard for HTTP/1.1 [1]
  2. Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning [4] [defines 420-424]
  3. WebDAV Advanced Collections [5] (Work in Progress) [defines 425]
  4. singlebörsen test lovoo [defines 426]

popular american dating site Values to be added to this name space SHOULD be subject to review in the form of a standards track document within the IETF Applications Area. Any such document SHOULD be traceable through statuses of either 'Obsoletes' or 'Updates' to the Draft Standard for HTTP/1.1 [1].top 10 free dating sim

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good us dating site The HTTP Upgrade Token Registry defines the name space for product tokens used to identify protocols in the Upgrade HTTP header field. Each registered token should be associated with one or a set of specifications, and with contact information.online dating username example

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   product         = token ["/" product-version]
   product-version = token

free uk dating completely free dating Registrations should be allowed on a First Come First Served basis as described in BCP 26 [10]. These specifications need not be IETF documents or be subject to IESG review, but should obey the following rules: best dating websites in america

  1. A token, once registered, stays registered forever.
  2. The registration MUST name a responsible party for the registration.
  3. The registration MUST name a point of contact.
  4. The registration MAY name the documentation required for the token.
  5. The responsible party MAY change the registration at any time. The IANA will keep a record of all such changes, and make them available upon request.
  6. The responsible party for the first registration of a "product" token MUST approve later registrations of a "version" token together with that "product" token before they can be registered.
  7. If absolutely required, the IESG MAY reassign the responsibility for a token. This will normally only be used in the case when a responsible party cannot be contacted.

free online dating completely free This specification defines the protocol token "TLS/1.0" as the identifier for the protocol specified by The TLS Protocol [6].america best dating sites

african white dating sites It is NOT required that specifications for upgrade tokens be made publicly available, but the contact information for the registration SHOULD be.partner suchen oder finden lassen kosten


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online free dating sims games Furthermore, for clients that do not explicitly try to invoke TLS, servers can use the Upgrade header in any response other than 101 or 426 to advertise TLS compliance. Since TLS compliance should be considered a feature of the server and not the resource at hand, it should be sufficient to send it once, and let clients cache that fact.100 free dating sites with free messaging

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free christian singles chat room While nothing in this memo affects the definition of the 'https' URI scheme, widespread adoption of this mechanism for HyperText content could use 'http' to identify both secure and non-secure resources.100 free dating african sites

free singles chat room online The choice of what security characteristics are required on the connection is left to the client and server. This allows either party to use any information available in making this determination. For example, user agents may rely on user preference settings or information about the security of the network such as 'TLS required on all POST operations not on my local net', or servers may apply resource access rules such as 'the FORM on this page must be served and submitted using TLS'.free west african dating sites

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singles ab 40 kostenlos xp A generic TCP tunnel is fraught with security risks. First, such authorization should be limited to a small number of known ports. The Upgrade: mechanism defined here only requires onward tunneling at port 80. Second, since tunneled data is opaque to the proxy, there are additional risks to tunneling to other well-known or reserved ports. A putative HTTP client CONNECTing to port 25 could relay spam via SMTP, for example.partnersuche ratgeber bücher

partnerbörse akademiker online References

[1]
dating site profile name examples, dating site screen names examples, courage & kontakt die partnervermittlungen, english speaking online chat free, learn english speaking online chat, english learn online chat, and ratgeber partnersuche vergleich, “top ten dating simulation games”, RFC 2616, June 1999.
[2]
top ten dating sim games, best american dating site, and frau sucht mann abenteuer, “bester gratis chat schweiz”, RFC 2396, August 1998.
[3]
einslive singlebörse yapi, “einslive singlebörse yasni”, RFC 2818, May 2000.
[4]
english online chat rooms, free dating site manila, biggest american dating site, partnersuche österreich gratis kreditkarte, and free singles chat free, “free online dating free chat”, RFC 2518, February 1999.
[5]
Slein, J. and E. Whitehead, “WebDAV Advanced Collection Protocol”.
Work In Progress.
[6]
any real free dating sites and free dating sites legit, “free dating completely free”, RFC 2246, January 1999.
[7]
free dating sites free, ratgeber partnersuche wien, christliche singles freunde chat community partnersuche vergleich, and einslive singlebörse italien, “einslive singlebörse irland”, RFC 2565, April 1999.
[8]
Luotonen, A., “Tunneling TCP based protocols through Web proxy servers”.
Work In Progress. (Also available in: Luotonen, Ari. Web Proxy Servers, Prentice-Hall, 1997 ISBN:0136806120.)
[9]
partnersuche österreich gratis youtube, “chat schweiz gratis katalog”, RFC 2629, June 1999.
[10]
us largest dating site and usa best dating site, “usa largest dating site”, BCP 26, RFC 2434, October 1998.
[11]
examples of great online dating usernames, “free online dating sites under 18”, BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

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dating screen names examples The CONNECT method was originally described in a Work in Progress titled, "Tunneling TCP based protocols through Web proxy servers", [8] by Ari Luotonen of Netscape Communications Corporation. It was widely implemented by HTTP proxies, but was never made a part of any IETF Standards Track document. The method name CONNECT was reserved, but not defined in [1].dating website profile name generator

gratis seriöse partnersuche wien The definition provided here is derived directly from that earlier memo, with some editorial changes and conformance to the stylistic conventions since established in other HTTP specifications.free dating sites images

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seriöse gratis singlebörse hamburg Rohit Khare
4K Associates / UC Irvine
EMail: partnerbörse akademiker wikipedia
top 10 online dating simulation games Scott Lawrence
Agranat Systems, Inc.
EMail: dating site profile name generator

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top 10 dating sim games psp Copyright © The Internet Society (2000). All Rights Reserved.christliche partnervermittlung kostenlos testen

top 10 dating sim games This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are included on all such copies and derivative works. However, this document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than English.christliche partnervermittlung kostenlos test

top 10 dating sim games pc The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns.single chats ab 40 kostenlos

ratgeber für männer geheimnisse der partnersuche This document and the information contained herein is provided on an “AS IS” basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.singlebörse test kostenlos

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seriöse gratis singlebörse münchen The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any intellectual property or other rights that might be claimed to pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in this document or the extent to which any license under such rights might or might not be available; neither does it represent that it has made any effort to identify any such rights. Information on the IETF's procedures with respect to rights in standards-track and standards-related documentation can be found in BCP-11. Copies of claims of rights made available for publication and any assurances of licenses to be made available, or the result of an attempt made to obtain a general license or permission for the use of such proprietary rights by implementors or users of this specification can be obtained from the IETF Secretariat.singlebörse testsieger

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