QUIC Working GroupM. Thomson, Editor
Intended status: Standards TrackS. Turner, Ed, Editor
Expires: June 1, 2017sn3rd
November 28, 2016

free phone chat line atlanta ga Using Transport Layer Security (TLS) to Secure QUIC


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chat line phone numbers free QUIC [QUIC-TRANSPORT] provides a multiplexed transport. When used for HTTP [RFC7230] semantics [QUIC-HTTP] it provides several key advantages over HTTP/1.1 [RFC7230] or HTTP/2 [RFC7540] over TCP [RFC0793].chat für singles gratis youtube

free trial phone chat line numbers This document describes how QUIC can be secured using Transport Layer Security (TLS) version 1.3 [I-D.ietf-tls-tls13]. TLS 1.3 provides critical latency improvements for connection establishment over previous versions. Absent packet loss, most new connections can be established and secured within a single round trip; on subsequent connections between the same client and server, the client can often send application data immediately, that is, zero round trip setup.partnervermittlung hiltbrand mägenwil

free phone chat line numbers This document describes how the standardized TLS 1.3 can act a security component of QUIC. The same design could work for TLS 1.2, though few of the benefits QUIC provides would be realized due to the handshake latency in versions of TLS prior to 1.3.partnervermittlung hiltbrand magnetventil

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sprüche über glückliches single leben The words “MUST”, “MUST NOT”, “SHOULD”, and “MAY” are used in this document. It’s not shouting; when they are capitalized, they have the special meaning defined in [RFC2119].single glücklich test

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dating chat rooms online for free QUIC [QUIC-TRANSPORT] can be separated into several modules:meine stadt stralsund partnersuche kostenlos

  1. The basic frame envelope describes the common packet layout. This layer includes connection identification, version negotiation, and includes markers that allow the framing and public reset to be identified.
  2. The public reset is an unprotected packet that allows an intermediary (an entity that is not part of the security context) to request the termination of a QUIC connection.
  3. Version negotiation frames are used to agree on a common version of QUIC to use.
  4. Framing comprises most of the QUIC protocol. Framing provides a number of different types of frame, each with a specific purpose. Framing supports frames for both congestion management and stream multiplexing. Framing additionally provides a liveness testing capability (the PING frame).
  5. Encryption provides confidentiality and integrity protection for frames. All frames are protected based on keying material derived from the TLS connection running on stream 1. Prior to this, data is protected with the 0-RTT keys.
  6. Multiplexed streams are the primary payload of QUIC. These provide reliable, in-order delivery of data and are used to carry the encryption handshake and transport parameters (stream 1), HTTP header fields (stream 3), and HTTP requests and responses. Frames for managing multiplexing include those for creating and destroying streams as well as flow control and priority frames.
  7. Congestion management includes packet acknowledgment and other signal required to ensure effective use of available link capacity.
  8. A complete TLS connection is run on stream 1. This includes the entire TLS record layer. As the TLS connection reaches certain states, keying material is provided to the QUIC encryption layer for protecting the remainder of the QUIC traffic.
  9. The HTTP mapping [QUIC-HTTP] provides an adaptation to HTTP semantics that is based on HTTP/2.

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   | TLS | HTTP |
   |  Streams   | Congestion |
   |         Frames          +--------+---------+
   +   +---------------------+ Public | Version |
   |   |     Encryption      | Reset  |  Nego.  |
   |                   Envelope                 |
   |                     UDP                    |

free dating chat and friend cameroon sites Figure 1: QUIC Structure

free dating chat for mobile This document defines the cryptographic parts of QUIC. This includes the handshake messages that are exchanged on stream 1, plus the record protection that is used to encrypt and authenticate all other frames.meine stadt stralsund partnersuche osteuropa

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free dating chat for free TLS 1.3 provides two basic handshake modes of interest to QUIC:single aber glücklich sprüche

  • A full handshake in which the client is able to send application data after one round trip and the server immediately after receiving the first message from the client.
  • A 0-RTT handshake in which the client uses information about the server to send immediately. This data can be replayed by an attacker so it MUST NOT carry a self-contained trigger for any non-idempotent action.

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    Client                                             Server

   (0-RTT Application Data)
   (end_of_early_data)        -------->
                             <--------      [Application Data]
   {Finished}                -------->

   [Application Data]        <------->      [Application Data]

partnersuche im internet bücher Figure 2: TLS Handshake with 0-RTT

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  • The server can respond to a ClientHello with a HelloRetryRequest, which adds an additional round trip prior to the basic exchange. This is needed if the server wishes to request a different key exchange key from the client. HelloRetryRequest is also used to verify that the client is correctly able to receive packets on the address it claims to have (see meine stadt stralsund partnersuche vergleich).
  • A pre-shared key mode can be used for subsequent handshakes to avoid public key operations. This is the basis for 0-RTT data, even if the remainder of the connection is protected by a new Diffie-Hellman exchange.

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bild partnersuche im internet QUIC completes its cryptographic handshake on stream 1, which means that the negotiation of keying material happens after the QUIC protocol has started. This simplifies the use of TLS since QUIC is able to ensure that the TLS handshake packets are delivered reliably and in order.dating chat free uk

partnersuche im internet buch QUIC Stream 1 carries a complete TLS connection. This includes the TLS record layer in its entirety. QUIC provides for reliable and in-order delivery of the TLS handshake messages on this stream.chat dating site for free

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buch über partnersuche im internet Once the TLS handshake completes, QUIC frames are protected using QUIC record protection, see dating websites geneva switzerland. If 0-RTT is possible, QUIC frames sent by the client can be protected with 0-RTT keys; these packets are subject to replay.how to create an online dating profile for guys

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tango chat line greenville sc The integration of QUIC with a TLS handshake is shown in more detail in how to make your online dating profile stand out. QUIC partnersuche hannover deutschland STREAM frames on stream 1 carry the TLS handshake. QUIC performs loss recovery [QUIC-RECOVERY] for this stream and ensures that TLS handshake messages are delivered in the correct order.single und glücklich jobs

    Client                                             Server

@A QUIC STREAM Frame(s) <1>:
       + QUIC Setup Parameters
                        0-RTT Key => @B

@B QUIC STREAM Frame(s) <any stream>:
   Replayable QUIC Frames

                                      QUIC STREAM Frame <1>: @A
                                      {Handshake Messages}
                        1-RTT Key => @C

                                           QUIC Frames <any> @C
@A QUIC STREAM Frame(s) <1>:

@C QUIC Frames <any>        <------->      QUIC Frames <any> @C

partnersuche absolut kostenlos Figure 3: QUIC over TLS Handshake

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  • ”<” and “>” enclose stream numbers.
  • ”@” indicates the key phase that is currently used for protecting QUIC packets.
  • ”(“ and “)” enclose messages that are protected with TLS 0-RTT handshake or application keys.
  • ”{“ and “}” enclose messages that are protected by the TLS Handshake keys.

free dating chat malaysia If 0-RTT is not possible, then the client does not send frames protected by the 0-RTT key (@B). In that case, the only key transition on the client is from cleartext (@A) to 1-RTT protection (@C).alleinerziehend single und glücklich

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free singles dating chat room The client transitions from @A to @B when sending 0-RTT data, but it transitions back to @A when sending its second flight of TLS handshake messages. This introduces a potential for confusion between packets with 0-RTT protection (@B) and those with 1-RTT protection (@C) at the server if there is loss or reordering of the handshake packets. See single und glücklich lieder for details on how this is addressed.oneindia free chat rooms

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gratis dating og chat At several stages during the handshake, new keying material can be exported from TLS and used for QUIC packet protection. At each transition during the handshake a new secret is exported from TLS and keying material is derived from that secret.free trial phone chat lines chicago

free dating or chat sites Every time that a new set of keys is used for protecting outbound packets, the KEY_PHASE bit in the public flags is toggled. The KEY_PHASE bit starts out with a value of 0 and is set to 1 when the first encrypted packets are sent. Once the connection is fully enabled, the KEY_PHASE bit can toggle between 0 and 1 as keys are updated (see single nicht glücklich).top 50 single charts november 2014

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free dating online chat room The KEY_PHASE bit allows a recipient to detect a change in keying material without necessarily needing to receive the first packet that triggered the change. An endpoint that notices a changed KEY_PHASE bit can update keys and decrypt the packet that contains the changed bit. This isn’t possible during the handshake, because the entire first flight of TLS handshake messages is used as input to key derivation.partnervermittlung maurer wien

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  • When using 0-RTT, the client transitions to using 0-RTT keys after sending the ClientHello. The KEY_PHASE bit on 0-RTT packets sent by the client is set to 1.
  • The server sends messages in the clear until the TLS handshake completes. The KEY_PHASE bit on packets sent by the server is set to 0 when the handshake is in progress. Note that TLS handshake messages will still be protected by TLS record protection based on the TLS handshake traffic keys.
  • The server transitions to using 1-RTT keys after sending its Finished message. This causes the KEY_PHASE bit on packets sent by the server to be set to 1.
  • The client transitions back to cleartext when sending its second flight of TLS handshake messages. KEY_PHASE on the client’s second flight of handshake messages is set back to 0. This includes a TLS end_of_early_data alert, which is protected with TLS (not QUIC) 0-RTT keys.
  • The client transitions to sending with 1-RTT keys and a KEY_PHASE of 1 after sending its Finished message.
  • Once the handshake is complete and all TLS handshake messages have been sent and acknowledged, either endpoint can send packets with a new set of keys. This is signaled by toggling the value of the KEY_PHASE bit, see how many calories in international delight coffee creamer singles.

free calling chat rooms At each transition point, both keying material (see how many calories in international delight french vanilla creamer singles) and the AEAD function used by TLS is interchanged with the values that are currently in use for protecting outbound packets. Once a change of keys has been made, packets with higher sequence numbers MUST use the new keying material until a newer set of keys (and AEAD) are used. The exception to this is that retransmissions of TLS handshake packets MUST use the keys that they were originally protected with (see how many calories in international delight french vanilla coffee creamer singles).how many calories in international delight hazelnut creamer singles

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       = TLS-Exporter("EXPORTER-QUIC 0-RTT Secret"
                      "", Hash.length)

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       = TLS-Exporter("EXPORTER-QUIC client 1-RTT Secret"
                      "", Hash.length)
       = TLS-Exporter("EXPORTER-QUIC server 1-RTT Secret"
                      "", Hash.length)

singlebörse für behinderte menschen After a key update (see partnersuche app schweiz mobil), these secrets are updated using the HKDF-Expand-Label function defined in Section 7.1 of [I-D.ietf-tls-tls13], using the PRF hash function negotiated by TLS. The replacement secret is derived using the existing Secret, a Label of “QUIC client 1-RTT Secret” for the client and “QUIC server 1-RTT Secret”, an empty HashValue, and the same output Length as the hash function selected by TLS for its PRF.free chat lines for phone

       = HKDF-Expand-Label(client_pp_secret_<N>,
                           "QUIC client 1-RTT Secret",
                           "", Hash.length)
       = HKDF-Expand-Label(server_pp_secret_<N>,
                           "QUIC server 1-RTT Secret",
                           "", Hash.length)

dating portale im test vergleich For example, the client secret is updated using HKDF-Expand [RFC5869] with an info parameter that includes the PRF hash length encoded on two octets, the string “TLS 1.3, QUIC client 1-RTT secret” and a zero octet. This equates to a single use of HMAC [RFC2104] with the negotiated PRF hash function:free chat rooms for smartphones

   info = Hash.length / 256 || Hash.length % 256 ||
          "TLS 1.3, QUIC client 1-RTT secret" || 0x00
       = HMAC-Hash(client_pp_secret_<N>, info || 0x01)

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   client_0rtt_key = HKDF-Expand-Label(client_0rtt_secret,
                                       "key", "", key_length)
   client_0rtt_iv = HKDF-Expand-Label(client_0rtt_secret,
                                      "iv", "", iv_length)

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   client_pp_key_<N> = HKDF-Expand-Label(client_pp_secret_<N>,
                                         "key", "", key_length)
   client_pp_iv_<N> = HKDF-Expand-Label(client_pp_secret_<N>,
                                        "iv", "", iv_length)
   server_pp_key_<N> = HKDF-Expand-Label(server_pp_secret_<N>,
                                         "key", "", key_length)
   server_pp_iv_<N> = HKDF-Expand-Label(server_pp_secret_<N>,
                                        "iv", "", iv_length)

free chat dating belgium The QUIC record protection initially starts without keying material. When the TLS state machine reports that the ClientHello has been sent, the 0-RTT keys can be generated and installed for writing. When the TLS state machine reports completion of the handshake, the 1-RTT keys can be generated and installed for writing.partnervermittlung wien kostenlos

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gratis dating en chat An endpoint MUST NOT initiate more than one key update at a time. A new key cannot be used until the endpoint has received and successfully decrypted a packet with a matching KEY_PHASE.sz online partnersuche er sucht sie rostock

partnersuche anzeige beispiel A receiving endpoint detects an update when the KEY_PHASE bit doesn’t match what it is expecting. It creates a new secret (see free oneindia online chat room) and the corresponding read key and IV. If the packet can be decrypted and authenticated using these values, then a write keys and IV are generated and the active keys are replaced. The next packet sent by the endpoint will then use the new keys.christian dating site switzerland

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   Initiating Peer                    Responding Peer

@M QUIC Frames
                    New Keys -> @N
@N QUIC Frames
                                          QUIC Frames @M
                    New Keys -> @N
                                          QUIC Frames @N

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free phone chat lines atlanta ga Implementations MUST NOT exchange data on any stream other than stream 1 prior to the completion of the TLS handshake. However, QUIC requires the use of several types of frame for managing loss detection and recovery. In addition, it might be useful to use the data acquired during the exchange of unauthenticated messages for congestion management.werbung für partnervermittlung

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partnersuche kostenlos mit bild online Endpoints MUST NOT use an unprotected partnersuche im internet forum ACK frame to acknowledge data that was protected by 0-RTT or 1-RTT keys. An endpoint MUST ignore an unprotected partnersuche im internet focus ACK frame if it claims to acknowledge data that was protected data. Such an acknowledgement can only serve as a denial of service, since an endpoint that can read protected data is always permitted to send protected data.beste singlebörse für frauen

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facebook partnersuche app facebook Accepting unprotected - specifically unauthenticated - packets presents a denial of service risk to endpoints. An attacker that is able to inject unprotected packets can cause a recipient to drop even protected packets with a matching sequence number. The spurious packet shadows the genuine packet, causing the genuine packet to be ignored as redundant.free chat line numbers in atlanta ga

hässliche männer im internet und partnerbörsen Once the TLS handshake is complete, both peers MUST ignore unprotected packets. The handshake is complete when the server receives a client’s Finished message and when a client receives an acknowledgement that their Finished message was received. From that point onward, unprotected messages can be safely dropped. Note that the client could retransmit its Finished message to the server, so the server cannot reject such a message.singlebörse frauen mit kinderwunsch

free phone chat line numbers in atlanta Since only TLS handshake packets and acknowledgments are sent in the clear, an attacker is able to force implementations to rely on retransmission for packets that are lost or shadowed. Thus, an attacker that intends to deny service to an endpoint has to drop or shadow protected packets in order to ensure that their victim continues to accept unprotected packets. The ability to shadow packets means that an attacker does not need to be on path.singlebörse für mollige frauen

This would not be an issue if QUIC had a randomized starting sequence number. If we choose to randomize, we fix this problem and reduce the denial of service exposure to on-path attackers. The only possible problem is in authenticating the initial value, so that peers can be sure that they haven’t missed an initial message.

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free phone chat line numbers virginia To avoid receiving TLS packets that contain no useful data, a TLS implementation MUST reject empty TLS handshake records and any record that is not permitted by the TLS state machine. Any TLS application data or alerts - other than a single end_of_early_data at the appropriate time - that is received prior to the end of the handshake MUST be treated as a fatal error.singlebörse tipps frauen

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free phone chat line numbers chicago A client MUST only use 0-RTT keys to protect data that is idempotent. A client MAY wish to apply additional restrictions on what data it sends prior to the completion of the TLS handshake. A client otherwise treats 0-RTT keys as equivalent to 1-RTT keys.singlebörse für dicke frauen

free phone chat line numbers in california A client that receives an indication that its 0-RTT data has been accepted by a server can send 0-RTT data until it receives all of the server’s handshake messages. A client SHOULD stop sending 0-RTT data if it receives an indication that 0-RTT data has been rejected. In addition to a ServerHello without an early_data extension, an unprotected handshake message with a KEY_PHASE bit set to 0 indicates that 0-RTT data has been rejected.partnervermittlung wels jobs

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create a good online dating profile A server MUST NOT use 0-RTT keys to protect anything other than TLS handshake messages. Servers therefore treat packets protected with 0-RTT keys as equivalent to unprotected packets in determining what is permissible to send. A server protects handshake messages using the 0-RTT key if it decides to accept a 0-RTT key. A server MUST still include the early_data extension in its ServerHello message.christ sucht christ partnersuche wien

tips for creating a online dating profile This restriction prevents a server from responding to a request using frames protected by the 0-RTT keys. This ensures that all application data from the server are always protected with keys that have forward secrecy. However, this results in head-of-line blocking at the client because server responses cannot be decrypted until all the server’s handshake messages are received by the client.singlebörse junge frauen ältere männer

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free trial chat lines in atlanta georgia Unless expressly permitted below, encrypted packets MUST NOT be used prior to completing the TLS handshake, in particular the receipt of a valid Finished message and any authentication of the peer. If packets are processed prior to completion of the handshake, an attacker might use the willingness of an implementation to use these packets to mount attacks.singlebörse indische frauen

sprüche zum glücklichen single leben TLS handshake messages are covered by record protection during the handshake, once key agreement has completed. This means that protected messages need to be decrypted to determine if they are TLS handshake messages or not. Similarly, gratis christliche partnersuche deutschland ACK and gratis christliche partnersuche de WINDOW_UPDATE frames might be needed to successfully complete the TLS handshake.singlebörse frauen schreiben nicht zurück

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reisepartner frankreich gesucht QUIC uses the TLS handshake for more than just negotiation of cryptographic parameters. The TLS handshake validates protocol version selection, provides preliminary values for QUIC transport parameters, and allows a server to perform return routeability checks on clients.kontakt partnervermittlung wels

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werbung partnervermittlung The QUIC version negotiation mechanism is used to negotiate the version of QUIC that is used prior to the completion of the handshake. However, this packet is not authenticated, enabling an active attacker to force a version downgrade.singlebörse wie frauen anschreiben

new free phone chat line numbers To ensure that a QUIC version downgrade is not forced by an attacker, version information is copied into the TLS handshake, which provides integrity protection for the QUIC negotiation. This does not prevent version downgrade during the handshake, though it means that such a downgrade causes a handshake failure.welche singlebörse für frauen kostenlos

dating chat online for free Protocols that use the QUIC transport MUST use Application Layer Protocol Negotiation (ALPN) [RFC7301]. The ALPN identifier for the protocol MUST be specific to the QUIC version that it operates over. When constructing a ClientHello, clients MUST include a list of all the ALPN identifiers that they support, regardless of whether the QUIC version that they have currently selected supports that protocol.tango chat line number greenville sc

sms chat mann sucht mann Servers SHOULD select an application protocol based solely on the information in the ClientHello, not using the QUIC version that the client has selected. If the protocol that is selected is not supported with the QUIC version that is in use, the server MAY send a QUIC version negotiation packet to select a compatible version.best online dating profile guys

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singlebörse für behinderte schweiz QUIC defines an extension for use with TLS. That extension defines transport-related parameters. This provides integrity protection for these values. Including these in the TLS handshake also make the values that a client sets available to a server one-round trip earlier than parameters that are carried in QUIC frames. This document does not define that extension.calories in international delight french vanilla creamer singles

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perfect online dating profile pua QUIC implementations describe a source address token. This is an opaque blob that a server might provide to clients when they first use a given source address. The client returns this token in subsequent messages as a return routeability check. That is, the client returns this token to prove that it is able to receive packets at the source address that it claims. This prevents the server from being used in packet reflection attacks (see partnervermittlung wels q&a).partnersuche app schweiz quotes

pickup online dating profile A source address token is opaque and consumed only by the server. Therefore it can be included in the TLS 1.3 pre-shared key identifier for 0-RTT handshakes. Servers that use 0-RTT are advised to provide new pre-shared key identifiers after every handshake to avoid linkability of connections by passive observers. Clients MUST use a new pre-shared key identifier for every connection that they initiate; if no pre-shared key identifier is available, then resumption is not possible.partnersuche reiten xxl

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partnervermittlung vorarlberg heute The certificate that the server uses MUST be considered valid for both connections, which will use different protocol stacks and could use different port numbers. For instance, HTTP/1.1 and HTTP/2 operate over TLS and TCP, whereas QUIC operates over UDP.kostenfreie partnersuche ab 50 zoll

partnervermittlung osteuropa rumänien Source address validation is not completely portable between different protocol stacks. Even if the source IP address remains constant, the port number is likely to be different. Packet reflection attacks are still possible in this situation, though the set of hosts that can initiate these attacks is greatly reduced. A server might choose to avoid source address validation for such a connection, or allow an increase to the amount of data that it sends toward the client without source validation.partnersuche test 2013

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free dating sites chat for free A client SHOULD also pad [RFC7685] its ClientHello to at least 1024 octets. A server is less likely to generate a packet reflection attack if the data it sends is a small multiple of the data it receives. A server SHOULD use a HelloRetryRequest if the size of the handshake messages it sends is likely to exceed the size of the ClientHello.gratis datingsite voor ouderen

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free dating sites where you can chat for free QUIC, TLS and HTTP/2 all contain a messages that have legitimate uses in some contexts, but that can be abused to cause a peer to expend processing resources without having any observable impact on the state of the connection. If processing is disproportionately large in comparison to the observable effects on bandwidth or state, then this could allow a malicious peer to exhaust processing capacity without consequence.begegnungen a2 partnersuche im internet

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partnervermittlung in rumänien TLS records SHOULD always contain at least one octet of a handshake messages or alert. Records containing only padding are permitted during the handshake, but an excessive number might be used to generate unnecessary work. Once the TLS handshake is complete, endpoints SHOULD NOT send TLS application data records unless it is to hide the length of QUIC records. QUIC packet protection does not include any allowance for padding; padded TLS application data records can be used to mask the length of QUIC frames.free chat rooms for ipod touch

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partnervermittlung für akademiker und unternehmer This document has no IANA actions. Yet.partnersuche im internet sinnlos

partnersuche im internet schweiz References

partnersuche im internet seriös Normative References

Rescorla, E., “partnersuche im internet schwierig”, Internet-Draft draft-ietf-tls-tls13-18 (work in progress), October 2016.
Iyengar, J., Ed. and I. Swett, Ed., “QUIC Loss Detection and Congestion Control”.
Iyengar, J., Ed. and M. Thomson, Ed., “QUIC: A UDP-Based Multiplexed and Secure Transport”.
Krawczyk, H., Bellare, M., and R. Canetti, “tips for making online dating profile”, RFC 2104, partnersuche im internet peinlich, February 1997, <partnersuche im internet pdf>.
Bradner, S., “private partnersuche im internet”, BCP 14, RFC 2119, kostenlos anzeigen aufgeben in hamburg, March 1997, <kostenlos anzeigen aufgeben in stuttgart>.
McGrew, D., “anzeige kostenlos aufgeben in österreich”, RFC 5116, partnersuche im internet ratgeber, January 2008, <partnersuche im internet referat>.
Krawczyk, H. and P. Eronen, “partnersuche im internet risiken”, RFC 5869, oneindia chat rooms free, May 2010, <partnersuche im internet ja oder nein>.
Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., “partnersuche im internet nachteile”, RFC 7230, erfahrungen mit partnersuche im internet, June 2014, <partnersuche im internet mit 20>.
Friedl, S., Popov, A., Langley, A., and E. Stephan, “partnersuche im internet bildungsspezifische mechanismen bei der wahl von kontakt partnern”, RFC 7301, partnersuche im internet meinungen, July 2014, <datingseite berlin>.
Langley, A., “partnersuche im internet wikipedia”, RFC 7685, warum partnersuche im internet, October 2015, <wie lange dauert partnersuche im internet>.

wie funktioniert partnersuche im internet Informative References

Luykx, A. and K. Paterson, “mann sucht mann chat”, March 2016, <mann sucht mann kostenlos>.
Bishop, M., Ed., “Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) over QUIC”.
Postel, J., “singlebörsen österreich gratis youtube”, STD 7, RFC 793, free trial phone chat lines in atlanta, September 1981, <leserbrief partnersuche im internet>.
Belshe, M., Peon, R., and M. Thomson, Ed., “partnersuche im internet junge leute”, RFC 7540, partnersuche im internet daf, May 2015, <die partnersuche im internet>.
Santesson, S. and H. Tschofenig, “partnersuche im internet doku”, RFC 7924, tipps für die partnersuche im internet, July 2016, <partnersuche im internet unter 30>.

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